India on seas of Navigation
anthropologist, has written that: "Those who believe the ancient peoples of Asia were incapable of crossing the ocean have completely lost sight of what the literary sources tell us concerning their ships and their navigation. Many of the peoples of Southeastern Asia had adopted Indian Hindu-Buddhist civilizations. The influences of the Hindu-Buddhist culture of southeast Asia in Mexico and particularly, among the Maya, are incredibly strong.
The term Navigation originates from the Sanskrit word "Navgati" (meaning science of sailing) (Nav - gati) Nav means sailor or ship and gati means pace or speed in Sanskrit.
With great zeal Indian historians pointed out that, in the past, Hindu civilization had extended far beyond the present boundaries of India. It had included not only Southeast Asia but extended as far as Indonesia (Bali and Java), the Philippines and perhaps it has influence even to South America, is something the world may have to think again, with the strong evidences emerging with time.
The question arises whether the ancient Hindus of Indonesia had contact with Mayan civilisation across the pacific which is evident from the pyramid constructions in Indonesia very similar to that of the Mayans. I shall share some information of what I collected from my reading. ==
The strongest, and indeed a hard piece of evidence established for trans-Pacific contact is the use of a particular technique for the manufacture of bark paper, common to China, Southeast Asia, Indonesia and Mesoamerica.
Michael Coe (2001a:58) in his book says that knowledge of this paper-making method "was diffused from eastern Indonesia to Mesoamerica at a very early date." He further argues that since bark paper was used to make books, information may have been exchanged between Pacific and Mesoamerican peoples.
The Indonesian Hindu temples Resembling Mayan Pyramids
Image from : http://www.hinduwisdom.info/Pacific.htm
Candi Sukuh Hindu Temple dedicated to Bhima of Mahabharata in Indonesia
Candi Sukuh Hindu Temple dedicated to Bhima of Mahabharata in Indonesia strikes a disquieting alien chord with its flat topped step pyramid and its Mayan calendar carvings.
The religious structures in Java are commonly called Candis, a term which originally meant a commemorative building.
In general layout, the temple conforms to the plan of most other Hindu temples. There are three precincts, consisting of three concentric terraces. However, where most temples would have a large square shrine, Candi Sukuh has a pyramid reminiscent of Mayan structures from Central America.
Another new discovery is a Candi-Sukuh like pyramid and even a stone sphinx on a remote island off New Guinea. The site is known to even a nearby logging company, but no-one to the outside world in general. This giant pyramid has only been seen by helicopter pilots and a few natives of the island. It is another example of Hindu/Maya connection in the early pacific. So far no photographs of the site have come forth. No one yet knows the age of this New Guinea pyramid and its “sphinx” on a remote island near the Solomons.
Reference : Discovering the Mysteries of Ancient America: Lost History And Legends, Unearthed And Explored. BOOK Authored by Frank Joseph and Zechariah Sitchin.
The Hindus are also the only older people besides the Mayans who are known to have employed the concept of zero in their mathematics.
Ancient Architects Employed Analogous Design Doctrines and Masonry Methods
Sri V. Ganapati Sthapati, has just measured with tape, compass and a lay-out story pole, the Mayan structures. He has confirmed that the layout of these structures, locations for doors, windows, proportions of width to length, roof styles, degree of slopes for roofs, column sizes, wall thicknesses, etc., all conform completely to the principles and guidelines as prescribed in the Vastu Shastras of India. Residential layouts are identical to those found in Mohenjodaro ruins of India. The temple layouts are identical to those that he is building today and that can be found all over India."
Ganapati Sthapati is India's foremost traditional temple architect and an expert in sculpture and stone construction to personally examine these ancient buildings. Sthapati is the architect of the San Marga Iraivan Temple being built at Kauai Aadheenam, Hawaii.
Sthapati was accompanied by two California builders and architects Deva Rajan and Thamby Kumaran. The trio began 11,000 feet high in central Peru at the Incan site of Machu Picchu. Sthapati believes, Indian architecture originated from the Mayan people of Central America. In Indian history, Mayan appears several times, most significantly as the author of Mayamatam, "Concept of Mayan" which is a Vastu Shastra, a text on art, architecture and town planning. The traditional date for this work is 8,000bce.
The fundamental principle of Mayan's architecture and town planning is the "module." Buildings and towns are to be laid out according to certain multiples of a standard unit. Floor plans, door locations and sizes, wall heights and roofs, all are determined by the modular plan. More specifically, Mayan advocated the use of an eight-by-eight square, for a total of 64 units, which is known as the Vastu Purusha Mandala. The on-site inspection by Sthapati was to determine if the Incan and Mayan structures followed a modular plan and also intended to examine the stone working technology-his particular field of expertise.
Sthapati was born in 1927 into a family whose ancestors, members of the aboriginal tribe of Viswakarmas, built the great temple at Tanjore in the 10th century ce at the request of Raja Raja Chola. He learned the craft from his father, Sri M. Vaiydyanatha Sthapati and his uncle, Sri M. Sellakkannu Sthapati. He spent 27 years as head of the Government College of Architecture and Sculpture in Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu, and is responsible for India's significant resurgence in the ancient art of stone carving. After his retirement in 1988, he continued building temples and founded the Vastu Vedic Research Foundation to explore the ancient origins of the temple craftsmen. He is responsible for the construction of dozens of temples in India, and others in Chicago, Washington D.C., Kentucky, Boston, Baltimore, San Francisco, and Hawaii in the USA as well as in the UK, Singapore, Fiji, Malaysia, Mauritius and the Seychelles.
Machu Pichu He proceeded to measure the buildings in detail and discovered each to be built on a module-based plan, following the system of eight-by-eight squares. The module method was followed within small fractions of an inch. The buildings were oriented toward certain points of the compass. Also the lengths of buildings were never more than twice the width.
Saqsayhuman, an Incan site dated from 400 bce to 1400 ce Here are the famous stone walls made of rocks weighing up to 160 tons and fitted together so expertly that a knife blade cannot be put in any joint. Sthapati pointed out small knobs left on their faces, used for the use of levers, the exact same method used in India to move large stones. Thirty to forty men moved these large rocks with this method, he explained to the guide's astonishment.
He observed details of the stone working being identical to what is practiced in India, such as the method of quarrying stones by splitting off slabs, the jointing and fitting of stones, the use of lime mortar, leveling with a plumb bob line and triangle, and the corbeling for the roofs. Corbeling is the method by which stones are drawn in layer by layer until they meet or nearly meet to allow a roof slab to be placed on top.
Sthapati considers the similarity of this technology to that used in India to be very significant. The use of the horizontal lintel and the absence of the arch are additional noteworthy points of correspondence between the two traditions.
The Mayan Yucatan Peninsula Having arrived at Chichén Itzá in time for the summer equinox on March 21st. The trio got to witness the moment of sunset at equinox, a shadow is cast by the steps of the Pyramid which creates the image of a serpent's body which joins a stone carving of a serpent's head at the bottom of the stair case. It is a stunning demonstration of Mayan astronomical and architectural precision.
The trio got back to work and tape measured and closely examined the Pyramid of the Castle. It too conformed to the Vastu Vedic principles of Mayan. The temple structure at the top was exactly 1/4th of the base. And the stepped pyramid design derived from a three-dimensional extension of the basic eight-by-eight grid system. The temple room at the top was also modular in design, with the wall thickness determining the size of doorways, location of columns, thickness of columns and the width and length of the structure.
From Chichén Itzá, they traveled on to Uxmal where they observed the snake and "bindu" designs on the wall faces. They were astounded by the thousands of pyramids at Tikal and Uxacturn in Guatemala, all laid out to conform to a grid pattern and oriented in astronomically significant directions.
Use of lime mortar for all of the stone and brick buildings, can been seen in the monumental creations in Mahabalipuram and the stone temples of Tanjor and Gangai Konda Choleswram in Tamil Nadu. The outer surfaces were plastered, embellishments worked out in lime mortar, then painted. This method was strongest among the Mayas at Tikal and Uaxactún, where all of the structures once had a plaster coating painted with many colors.
Sri Ganapati Sthapati is vigorously continuing his research and is open to suggestions one may contact him with queries or information at :
Vastu Vedic Research Foundation, Plot A-1, H.I.G. Colony, 1st Main Road (New Beach Road), Thiruvalluvar Nagar, Thiruvanmiyur, Madras 600 041, India.
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